What are the pathways for apoptosis?

What are the pathways for apoptosis?

The two main pathways of apoptosis are extrinsic and intrinsic as well as a perforin/granzyme pathway. Each requires specific triggering signals to begin an energy-dependent cascade of molecular events. Each pathway activates its own initiator caspase (8, 9, 10) which in turn will activate the executioner caspase-3.

What is apoptosis the apoptotic pathways and the caspase cascade?

Apoptosis is an important cellular process that allows cells to die in a programmed fashion, essential for embryo development, homeostasis, and cancer development. This 3D animation provides an overview of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways involved and demonstrates how activation of the caspase cascade occurs.

What are the 4 stages in apoptosis?

Four Stages of Apoptosis Schematic To illustrate these apoptosis events and how to detect them, Bio-Rad has created a pathway which divides apoptosis into four stages: induction, early phase, mid phase and late phase (Figure 1).

What happens if apoptosis does not occur?

In adults, apoptosis is used to rid the body of cells that have been damaged beyond repair. Apoptosis also plays a role in preventing cancer. If apoptosis is for some reason prevented, it can lead to uncontrolled cell division and the subsequent development of a tumor.

How do you initiate apoptosis?

The intrinsic apoptosis pathway is initiated by, for example, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. It is activated by a range of exogenous and endogenous stimuli, such as DNA damage, ischemia, and oxidative stress. Moreover, it plays an important function in development and in the elimination of damaged cells.

What happens if apoptosis fails?

How long does it take for apoptosis to occur?

Scientists observing this process found that signals that trigger apoptosis move through the cell like a wave at a rate of 30 micrometers per minute. Apoptotic cells in any system can die and disappear relatively quickly. The time from initiation of apoptosis to completion can occur as quickly as 2–3 hours.

Which MAP kinase pathway is most relevant to breast cancer?

Three major MAP kinase pathways exist in human tissues, but the one involving ERK-1 and -2 is most relevant to breast cancer. Peptide growth factors acting through tyrosine kinase containing receptors are the major regulators of ERK-1 and -2.

What are signal transduction pathways in breast cancer?

These signal transduction pathways serve as an indicators of the intensity of trafficking induced by various growth factor, steroid hormone, and G protein receptor mediated ligands. Three major MAP kinase pathways exist in human tissues, but the one involving ERK-1 and -2 is most relevant to breast cancer.

How does isoliensinine induce apoptosis in breast cancer?

In isoliensinine-induced apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells, the generation of ROS activates both the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, and p38 activation also induces ROS elevation in a positive feedback loop [126].

What is the role of MAPKs in apoptosis?

MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways regulate a variety of biological processes through multiple cellular mechanisms. In most of these processes, such as apoptosis, MAPKs have a dual role since they can act as activators or inhibitors, depending on the cell type and the stimulus.