How do you cite brackets in APA?

How do you cite brackets in APA?

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual. When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs. When a work has 3-5 authors, cite all the names the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Do you italicize brackets?

In some traditional typesetting contexts, you would never italicise parentheses even within italic text (and I’d recommend doing this yourself if you have the luxury). I must highly recommend not to only italicise one of the parentheses! (As in your example ‘(or fluff)’.)

How do you use brackets in citations?

When writers insert or alter words in a direct quotation, square brackets—[ ]—are placed around the change….Bracket Use: Quick Summary.

Do Don’t
Use brackets to enclose a change in letter case or verb tense when integrating a quote into your paper. Use bracketed material in a way that twists the author’s meaning.

What do you put in brackets?

Brackets (parentheses) are punctuation marks used within a sentence to include information that is not essential to the main point. Information within parentheses is usually supplementary; were it removed, the meaning of the sentence would remain unchanged.

Do you start brackets with a capital letter?

When a parenthetical phrase or sentence interrupts the middle of a sentence, do not capitalize the first letter inside the parentheses unless, of course, the word is a proper noun or proper adjective. Example: We saw Roseate Spoonbills (they have an exquisite pink color) on our trip to Texas.

Why do you put brackets around a letter?

‘” Brackets are used in quoted matter to indicate any editoria look change or insertion. If an author changes the capitalization of a word in a quote to help the quote fit the context or make sense, the change from capitalized to lowercase or vice versa is signaled by bracketing the change from the original.

Where do you put period after brackets?

Punctuation Junction: Periods and Parentheses

  1. When part of a sentence falls inside parentheses and part falls outside, the period goes outside.
  2. When a whole sentence falls inside parentheses, the period goes inside.
  3. These two approaches are incompatible.

What are the fancy parentheses called?

Curly brackets { and }, also known as curly braces (UK and US) or simply braces, flower brackets (India) and squiggly brackets (colloquially), are rarely used in prose and have no widely accepted use in formal writing, but may be used to mark words or sentences that should be taken as a group, to avoid confusion when …

How do you reference in square brackets?

A number enclosed in square brackets, eg. [1] or [26], placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference. Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation, with a space before the bracket.

What are the rules for using parentheses?


  1. Use parentheses around nonessential information or abrupt changes in thought.
  2. If the information in parentheses requires a question mark or an exclamation mark, use the mark inside the parentheses only if the sentence ends with a different mark.
  3. Use parentheses to clarify preceding words.

Can you use brackets for a relative clause?

The easiest way to spot parentheses is by find a pair of commas, dashes or brackets being used as parentheses. Relative clauses are classed as parentheses. That’s because when you remove the relative clause, the original structure still makes sense.

What is the difference between parentheses and brackets?

Parentheses are punctuation marks that are used to set off information within a text or paragraph. Brackets, sometimes called square brackets, are most often used to show that words have been added to a direct quotation.

Do periods go inside brackets?

Periods and Parentheses When a complete, independent sentence is entirely enclosed by parentheses, the period goes inside the closing parenthesis.

How do you punctuate brackets?

Summary: How to Punctuate Brackets Always place full stops outside closing brackets unless the entire sentence is parenthetical, in which case the full stop goes inside. Only use a comma after a closing bracket at the end of a clause. Use question marks and exclamation points inside brackets as required.

What is the difference between parentheses and subordinate clause?

You see, the mildest form of parenthesis, for when you want to quickly insert a detail without distracting the reader, is a subordinate clause: a nonessential phrase framed by a pair of commas. The subordinate-clause parenthesis is one strategy. Another is to use the punctuation characters called parentheses.

What are examples of relative clauses?

Relative clauses

  • I bought a new car.
  • She lives in New York.
  • A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about:
  • A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something.
  • 1: The relative pronoun is the subject:
  • 2: The relative pronoun is the object:
  • The music is good.
  • My brother met a woman.

What do square brackets mean in citation?

6) explains, square brackets are used to indicate material you have added. Thus, if square brackets are in the original, provide an explanation in parentheses after the quotation, as shown in the following example: “He wanted to have [his] cake and eat it too” (square brackets in the original).

Do you always provide a citation for a paraphrase?

When you use your own words to convey information from an original source, you are paraphrasing. While paraphrases do not require quotation marks, they do require citations.

How do you solve parentheses?

If an equation you need to solve has parentheses, simplify the parentheses (most often using distribution) and then solve as you normally would. Simplify both sides of the equation as much as possible using the order of operations (distribute, combine like terms, etc.).

How do you use parentheses and brackets?

Punctuation Junction: Parentheses and Brackets

  1. Use brackets inside parentheses to create a double enclosure in the text.
  2. Separate citations from parenthetical text with either semicolons (for parenthetical-style citations) or commas around the year (for narrative citations).