Is BRAF a Protooncogene?

Is BRAF a Protooncogene?

BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf. The gene is also referred to as proto-oncogene B-Raf and v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, while the protein is more formally known as serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf.

Is BRAF a tumor suppressor gene?

BRAF is a proto-oncogene that becomes an oncogene when mutated—resulting in the continuous production of proteins that stimulate cell proliferation. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that code for proteins that function to repair damaged DNA or eliminate cells that can’t be repaired.

How do you identify a BRAF mutation?

The most commonly used technique to identify BRAF mutation is real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A more comprehensive evaluation of BRAF genotypes can be accomplished using DNA sequencing methods, including traditional Sanger sequencing or newer methods, such as pyrosequencing.

Does everyone have the BRAF gene?

Everyone Has the BRAF Gene BRAF is a gene that locks down a specific protein called B-Raf. This protein helps send signals inside your cells that are related to cell growth. Everyone has this gene, and when it’s working properly, it’s an important part of how cells operate.

What does BRAF code for?

The BRAF gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q34) and codes for the serine/threonine protein kinase, B-Raf. B-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family and is a downstream target of RAS, playing a pivotal role in the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

What is the most common BRAF mutation?

More than 97% of BRAF mutations are located in codon 600 of the BRAF gene. The most common mutation (in up to 90% of cases) is the result of a transversion of T to A at nucleotide 1799 (T1799A), which results in a substitution of valine (V) for glutamic acid (E) at position 600.

What is the BRAF V600E mutation?

An activating missense mutation in codon 600 of exon 15 (V600E) of BRAF gene has been identified in multiple neoplasms including melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Patients with BRAF V600E-mutated melanoma respond to FDA-approved BRAF inhibitors.

How common is BRAF V600E in colorectal adenocarcinoma?

BRAF is altered in 11.13% of colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with BRAF V600E present in 7.8% of all colorectal adenocarcinoma patients [ 4 ]. BRAF V600E is an inclusion criterion in 2 clinical trials for colorectal adenocarcinoma, of which 2 are open and 0 are closed.

What is the inclusion criterion for BRAF V600E?

BRAF V600E is an inclusion criterion in 1 clinical trial for adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, of which 1 is open and 0 are closed. Of the trial that contains BRAF V600E and adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction as inclusion criteria, 1 is phase 2 (1 open) [ 5 ].

Which medications are used to treat BRAF V600E lung cancer?

Melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, ganglioglioma, and pilocytic astrocytoma have the most therapies targeted against BRAF V600E or its related pathways [ 5 ]. Note: Per NCCN, BRAF V600E mutation makes response to panitumumab or cetuximab unlikely.