What are the side chains of DNA?
The side chain is a hydrocarbon branching element of a molecule that is attached to a larger hydrocarbon backbone. It is one factor in determining a molecule’s properties and reactivity.
Which of the following are nucleotide building blocks for DNA?
A nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule (either ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA) attached to a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base. The bases used in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).
What is the quaternary structure of DNA?
The quaternary structure of DNA refers to the formation of chromatin. Because the human genome is so large, DNA must be condensed into chromatin, which consists of repeating units known as nucleosomes. Nucleosomes contain DNA and proteins called histones.
Why are the strands of DNA described as complementary?
Base Pairs For example, a certain purine can only pair with a certain pyrimidine. This means Adenine pair with Thymine, and Guanine pairs with Cytosine. This is known as the base complementary rule because the DNA strands are complementary to each other.
How many side chains are there?
There are basically four different classes of amino acids determined by different side chains: (1) non-polar and neutral, (2) polar and neutral, (3) acidic and polar, (4) basic and polar. Principles of Polarity: The greater the electronegativity difference between atoms in a bond, the more polar the bond.
What are the building blocks of DNA?
DNA is a molecule made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). For the two strands of DNA to zip together, A pairs with T, and C pairs with G.
How many chains are there in DNA?
A DNA molecule consists of two long polynucleotide chains composed of four types of nucleotide subunits. Each of these chains is known as a DNA chain, or a DNA strand. Hydrogen bonds between the base portions of the nucleotides hold the two chains together (Figure 4-3).
What determines the polarity of A nucleic acid chain?
The polarity in DNA and RNA is derived from the oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the backbone. Nucleic acids are formed when nucleotides come together through phosphodiester linkages between the 5′ and 3′ carbon atoms.
Is double helix A quaternary structure?
The primary structure of the nucleic acid refers to the sequence of its nucleotide bases, and the way these are covalently bonded to each other. The sequence of “letters” in a strand of DNA or RNA, then, is part of its primary structure, as is the helical or double-helical shape.
What does semi conservative mean in DNA?
Definition of semiconservative : relating to or being genetic replication in which a double-stranded molecule of nucleic acid separates into two single strands each of which serves as a template for the formation of a complementary strand that together with the template forms a complete molecule.
What is the basic building block of DNA?
The basic building block of DNA is called a NUCLEOTIDE. A nucleotide is made up of one sugar molecule, one phosphate molecule and one of the four bases. The nucleotides of DNA line up so that the sugar and phosphate molecules make two long backbones like the handrails of a ladder.
What are the complementary chains of DNA molecules?
A DNA Molecule Consists of Two Complementary Chains of Nucleotides. A DNA molecule consists of two long polynucleotide chains composed of four types of nucleotide subunits. Each of these chains is known as a DNA chain, or a DNA strand. Hydrogen bonds between the base portions of the nucleotides hold the two chains together (Figure 4-3).
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What is the structure of DNA in biology?
The Structure of DNA. (The Double Helix) DNA is made up of six smaller molecules — a five carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate molecule and four different nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine).