What pathogen causes Nipah virus?

What pathogen causes Nipah virus?

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host.

Does Nipah virus exist?

Nipah virus is also known to cause illness in pigs and people. Infection with NiV is associated with encephalitis (swelling of the brain) and can cause mild to severe illness and even death. Outbreaks occur almost annually in parts of Asia, primarily Bangladesh and India.

What happens when Ebola enters the body?

Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes fever, body aches, and diarrhea, and sometimes bleeding inside and outside the body. As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Ultimately, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding.

What are the symptoms of Nipah virus?

Symptoms of Nipah virus usually show up within 4 to 14 days of exposure and include:

  • Fever.
  • Headache.
  • Cough.
  • Sore throat.
  • Trouble breathing.
  • Vomiting.

Is Nipah virus fatal?

Nipah virus infection is fatal in 40 to 70 percent of cases, though some outbreaks have had 100% case fatality rate.

Can Nipah virus be cured?

Currently there are no licensed treatments available for Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Treatment is limited to supportive care, including rest, hydration, and treatment of symptoms as they occur.

How fatal is Ebola?

Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare but severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%.

Can Nipah spread through air?

Experts say that Nipah Virus is not an airborne infection. Refer to Q 2(How does it spread?). However, infection can spread through droplets and objects contaminated by secretions (urine, saliva etc.) of infected animals or humans.

How long does Nipah virus survive?

Nipah virus can survive for days in fruit juice or flying-fox urine (22). Since date palm sap is sold and consumed within a few hours of collection, consumers could ingest infectious virus.

Can Nipah virus spread person to person?

No person-to-person transmission was reported in that outbreak. However, person-to-person spread of NiV is regularly reported in Bangladesh and India. This is most commonly seen in the families and caregivers of NiV-infected patients, and in healthcare settings.

What is Freiberg’s infraction?

Freiberg’s Infraction is an avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head, most commonly the second metatarsal head. This means that the bone at the head of the second metatarsal dies due to insufficient or interrupted blood supply.

What is the treatment for Freiberg’s infraction?

As Freiberg’s infraction progresses, radiographs show a flattened and fragmented metatarsal head. Nonoperative treatment is based on decreasing foot pressure and unloading the affected metatarsal. Spontaneous healing with remodeling may occur in early stages of the disease.

How common is Freiberg’s infraction in women?

Loss of blood supply to the metaphysis (infraction) results in collapse of the metatarsal head. Freiberg’s infraction is more common in women than men and has an onset during the second and third decade of life. Freiberg first described this condition in 1914.

Does Freiberg’s disease affect the second toe?

It is not uncommon for Freiberg’s disease to be associated with a long second toe, as this can increase the repetitive force that the second metatarsal head is subject to. X-rays will usually allow Freiberg’s disease to be diagnosed. They will often show a change in the shape of the affected metatarsal head (Figure 1).